Office 365 Content Search Actions and Hard Deletes of Mailbox Items

Exchange Online

Hard Deletes for Office 365 Purges

As is often the case when you write for a moving target, I learned that Microsoft had upgraded the purge action for an Office 365 content search to finally support hard deletes the day after we shipped the March 2019 update for Office 365 for IT Pros. We’ve updated Chapter 20, but you won’t see that until the April release. This text will have to suffice until then.

Content Search Actions

Actions govern what happens when you run a content search. Normally, after creating a search, you execute an action to execute a preview search, followed by an export action when the search returns the set of items you need. Behind the scenes, the New-ComplianceSearch cmdlet sets up a search and the New-ComplianceSearchAction cmdlet associates an action with the search. The Start-ComplianceSearch cmdlet then starts the search.

Purges for Exchange Online Only

The Purge action is only supported for content searches executed against Exchange Online mailboxes. Up to recently, it was only possible to soft-delete mailbox items, which means that a user could recover the item. This is OK if you want to allow users to recover items deleted in error, but not if you want to permanently remove items like malware or messages sent in error. The Search-Mailbox cmdlet gets a lot of use in these scenarios because it is very good at removing mailbox items.

Microsoft didn’t say anything about upgrading the purge action to support hard deletes, and I only noticed the change when I looked at the documentation for New-ComplianceSearchAction for quite another reason. It’s nice how these unannounced changes pop up in the cloud, I guess.

In any case, if you use a hard delete purge action, Exchange Online moves the items into the Recoverable Items\Purges folder and marks them for permanent removal. The next time the Managed Folder Assistant processes the mailbox, it removes the items from the database and they are irrecoverable. While the items are in the Purges folder, they are invisible to the user.

Limited Purging

You can only create a purge action for a search with PowerShell. However, that’s not the big downside. Only ten items at a time can be purged in this manner (unindexed items are never purged), so if you wanted to remove 50 items, you’ll have to iterate five times to be sure that everything is found and deleted. The intention is that you shouldn’t use content searches to clear out mailboxes and having a low limit restricts the potential impact of mistakes. By comparison, Search-Mailbox can process up to 10,000 items.

Purging with a Content Search

First, create a content search with PowerShell or through the Security and Compliance Center (the easiest approach). Make sure that the search finds the items that you want to remove and limit it to Exchange Online mailboxes. Now add the purge action by running the New-ComplianceSearchAction cmdlet to add the purge action and set the purge type to HardDelete:

Office 365 notices that a purge action is specified and goes ahead to find the matching items using the search query in the associated content search. It will purge the first 10 matching items found. The search should not take long (it’s only going to process 10 items), but you can check by running the Get-ComplianceSearchAction cmdlet. Note that the name of the action is formed by the search name, an underscore, and the name of the associated search. When the status is reported as Complete, the items are purged.

To check the effect of a purge, you can look at the folders in a user mailbox that you know held a message found by the search. Here we use the Get-MailboxFolderStatistics cmdlet to retrieve the item count for the Purges folder. As items are purged, the item count in this folder should increase.


For more information about content searches, see Chapter 20 of the Office 365 for IT Pros eBook. The Search-Mailbox cmdlet is covered in Chapter 6.

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