Graph X-Ray Tool Helps PowerShell Developers Master the Graph

Even in First Release, Graph X-Ray Proves Its Worth

When Microsoft decided to build the administrative tools for Exchange Server 2007 around PowerShell, they realized that it would take time for administrators to become accustomed to PowerShell. Sensibly, Microsoft included a cmdlet logging facility in the Exchange Management Console (EMC) to allow administrators to see the PowerShell code used to execute different actions, such as creating a new mailbox. Cmdlet logging gave administrators prototype code to build scripts around and it’s still the best learning tool I have encountered in a Microsoft server product.

Roll on sixteen years and cmdlet logging doesn’t exist in the modern Exchange Admin Center (EAC). Many, including me, have moaned at Microsoft about this deficiency. One response is that EAC is no longer built on PowerShell, which makes it very difficult to generate and display PowerShell code for administrators to copy and reuse. It’s a great pity.

All of this brings me to a new browser extension called Graph X-Ray. Created by Microsoft employees but not a formal product, Graph X-Ray displays the Graph API commands run to execute actions in consoles like the Azure AD admin center and the Intune admin center. Not every action in these consoles depends on Graph APIs, but enough do in important areas like users, groups, and device management to make this an interesting facility.

Raw Graph or Graph SDK

Anyone developing code for Microsoft 365 can get value from Graph X-ray, whether you’re using compiled languages like C# or JavaScript or writing PowerShell scripts. Using Graph APIs in PowerShell normally means that scripts run faster, especially if the code must process more than a few objects. Scripters have the choice to include “raw API calls” or use cmdlets from the Microsoft Graph PowerShell SDK. The script to create a tenant configuration report is a good example of using raw API calls while the script to generate an Office 365 licensing report uses the SDK cmdlets. In either case, you need to understand how Graph API queries are formed and executed, and that’s where the Graph X-Ray extension proves its worth.

Restoring Deleted Microsoft 365 Groups

Take the example of restoring a deleted Microsoft 365 group. Before you can restore a group, you need to know what groups are in a soft-deleted state. Groups remain in the soft-deleted state for 30 days after deletion to allow administrators to restore groups using options in the Microsoft 365 and Azure AD admin centers. After the 30-day retention period lapses, Azure AD removes the groups permanently and they become irrecoverable.

In a large tenant, many groups might be waiting for permanent deletion, including inactive groups removed by the Microsoft 365 Groups Expiration policy. The Get-UnifiedGroup cmdlet can generate a list of soft-deleted groups using a command like this:

Get-UnifiedGroup -ResultSize Unlimited -IncludeSoftDeletedGroups:$True | ? {$_.WhenSoftDeleted -ne $Null} | Sort WhenSoftDeleted | Format-Table DisplayName, PrimarySmtpAddress, WhenSoftDeleted

The cmdlet works, but it’s slow. To speed things up, I tried using the Get-MgDirectoryDeletedItem SDK cmdlet. The cmdlet works when listing deleted user accounts, but no matter what I did, I couldn’t find a way to make it return a list of deleted groups.

Using the Graph X-Ray

I downloaded the Graph X-Ray extension for the Edge browser add-on (other versions are available for Chrome and a Microsoft Store app). To load the add-on, I opened the Developer Tools option in Edge and selected Graph X-Ray. A new blade opened in the browser to display the Graph API commands used for actions performed in the Azure AD admin center (Figure 1).

Viewing Graph commands with the Graph X-Ray extension
Figure 1: Viewing Graph commands with the Graph X-Ray extension

It’s important to emphasize that this is very much an MVP release. Things are by no means perfect, but enough value is present to allow Graph X-Ray to be very helpful. For example, the command reported when the Azure AD admin center lists deleted groups is:

Get-MgDirectoryDeletedItem -DirectoryObjectId $directoryObjectId -Property "id,displayName,mailEnabled,securityEnabled,groupTypes,onPremisesSyncEnabled,deletedDateTime,isAssignableToRole" -Sort "displayName%20asc" -Top 20

This is fine, but nowhere does it tell you how to populate the $directoryObjectId variable. On a more positive note, the raw Graph API query showed the structure needed to return deleted groups, and I was able to use that information to submit the query with the Invoke-MgGraphRequest SDK cmdlet, which worked. It’s worth noting that the Invoke-MgGraphRequest cmdlet exists to allow scripts to execute raw Graph API queries when an SDK cmdlet isn’t available (or doesn’t work).

Equipped with new-found knowledge about how to find deleted groups, I coded this script to report the set of soft-deleted groups including when each group is due for permanent deletion.

Select-MgProfile Beta
$uri = "`$select=id,displayName,groupTypes,deletedDateTime&`$orderBy=displayName%20asc&`$top=100"
[array]$Groups = (Invoke-MgGraphRequest -Uri $Uri).Value
If (!($Groups)) { write-Host "No deleted groups available for recovery" ; break }
$Report = [System.Collections.Generic.List[Object]]::new() # Create output file for report
$Now = Get-Date
ForEach ($Group in $Groups) {
     $PermanentRemovalDue = Get-Date($Group.deletedDateTime).AddDays(+30)
     $TimeTillRemoval = $PermanentRemovalDue - $Now
     $ReportLine = [PSCustomObject]@{ 
          Group                = $Group.DisplayName
          Id                   = $Group.Id
          Deleted              = $Group.deletedDateTime
          PermanentDeleteOn    = Get-Date($PermanentRemovalDue) -format g
          DaysRemaining        = $TimeTillRemoval.Days        } 
$Report | Sort {$_.PermanentDeleteOn -as [datetime]} | Out-GridView

The add-on includes the facility to download the commands it captures in a script (GraphXRaySession.PS1). There’s likely to be some duplication of commands in the downloaded script, but it’s great to have such an easy method to copy the commands for later use.

More Insight from Graph X-Ray

Moving on to restoring a soft-deleted group, Microsoft’s documentation for the Restore-MgDirectoryObject cmdlet is woefully deficient in terms of useful examples. An attempt to pass the identifier of a deleted group to the cmdlet failed:

Restore-MgDirectoryObject -DirectoryObjectId $GroupId
Restore-MgDirectoryObject : Resource '2eea84f2-eda3-4a72-8054-5b52c063ee3a' does not exist or one of its queried reference-property objects are not present.

Once again, I turned to Graph X-Ray to find out what command powered the restore deleted group option in the Azure AD admin center. The raw API reported by Graph X-Ray is a POST (update) query like this:

POST /directory/deleteditems/2eea84f2-eda3-4a72-8054-5b52c063ee3a/restore

It’s easy to take this command and repurpose it for use with the Invoke-MgGraphRequest cmdlet:

$uri = “”
Invoke-MgGraphRequest -Method Post -Uri $Uri

More Please!

I wish Microsoft would provide similar insight across all the Microsoft 365 admin consoles. Being able to see the Graph API commands used to perform real-life actions is a powerful learning aid. If Microsoft is serious about driving the adoption of the Graph and the Graph SDK, they could do worse than invest in this kind of tooling. I hope that they do.

Keep up to date with developments like the Graph API commands by subscribing to the Office 365 for IT Pros eBook. Our monthly updates make sure that our subscribers understand the most important changes happening across Office 365.

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